Guatemala, heart of the Mayan world, is located in the center of Mesoamerica. This region is recognized as one of the most important "hot-spots" of biodiversity to level world (home to 17% of all known terrestrial species) due to quefunciona as a bridge allowing the confluence of flora and fauna between the biogeographical Elneotropico (South America) and Nearctic (North America). Guatemala is home to more than one third of all endangered species living in Mesoamerica. The country has been recognized as one of the 19 Earth megadiverse countries, this means that it belongs to a select group of Nations that sostienenelevadosindicesde biodiversity. Altogether these countries kept around 70% of the biodiversity of the planet, occupying less than 13% of the surface of the same.
The country is characterized by a large natural variability. High levels of biodiversity and complexity of it, are the result of the interaction of two important prehistoric events: the migration from North to South due to the closure of the Central American isthmus, and migrations of altitude esproducto of climate change related to glaciation. The ecological diversity of the country has been affected by altitude variations ranging from sea level to 4,000 meters, which also has resulted in a greater diversity of ecosystems. In Guatemala there is a concordance between the regions with the highest diversity of ecosystems, endemic and abundance of variability of cultivated species. For an understanding easier and practical of the physiographic and ecological regions of the country, this document will use the vegetative classification system based on biomes. Such a system was proposed by the Guatemalan biologist Luis Villar Anleu in 1998, and defines biome as the more or less numerous and extensive grouping of terrestrial ecosystems, which keep eachother defined relations structural and functional; We propose the following 7 country:
Humid Tropical Forest
2. Tropical rain forest
3. Mountain Jungle
4. Mountain Forest
5. Prickly Chaparral
6. Humid subtropical forest
7. Humid tropical savanna
In addition, Guatemala has been recognized at the global level due to the presence of a large number of endemic species, “organisms that are found and distributed only in certain determined geographical region”. The country serves as a runner and important destination of thousands of migratory birds and is considered the second most important center of genetic diversity of crop plants and their wild ancestors. He has more than 10,300 plant species (15% endemic to the country), about 650 species of fish, more than 190 species of mammals and approximately 720 species of birds in their records. The vast majority of the species endemic to the country are restricted to the mountainous regions, in which predominantly coniferous forests.
Guatemala has coasts on both the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Along the Caribbean coast, extends the Mesoamerican Reef, which is considered to be the largest in the Western hemisphere and is only surpassed by the great Coral barrier, Australia. The Caribbean coast runs home to bottlenose dolphins, other species of cetaceans and shy Manatee. To the shores of the country arrived 5 7 existing sea turtle species, the South coast being preferred for the nestings. The Pacific Guatemalan is world famous for being one of the best areas for fishing for Sailfish, Pacific, as well as the Black Marlin, yellow fin tuna, and the Dorado-delfin. In the Pacific also are the best preserved mangrove forests in the country. The country has two biosphere declared by UNESCO, the Maya Biosphere Reserve and the reserve of Sierra de las Minas biosphere. Thanks to the rich ecological diversity and cultural variety of the country, this has been divided in 7 Tourism Regions:
Peten, Adventure in the Mayan world
Guatemala, Modern and Colonial
Altiplano, Living Maya Culture
Izabal, Caribbean Green
Pacific Exotic and Miscellaneous
East, Mystical and Natural
Verapaz, Natural Paradise
Each region has its own identity and an impressive array of attractions that make it unique.